There are several pathways that are upregulated in actively proliferating cancer cells. Here, we highlight those that constitute the basis of the so-called “Warburg metabolism”.


From Glucose to Lactate in detail

Warburg effect visualized

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Glycerol-3-phosphate LXR Cholesterol FXR Fatty acids Acetyl-CoA NADP + NADPH NADP + NADPH α-KG NADP + NADPH Isocitrate ACL Citrate Membrane lipids Phospholipids Triglycerides Lipid Synthesis ROS Lipid peroxidation Fe 2+ Ferroptosis ROS Defense NADP + NADPH NADPH NADP + Ribose-5-phosphate Pentose Phosphate Pathway G6PDH Glutamine Glutamine Glutaminase Glutamate α-KG Citrate O 2 CO 2 Glutaminolysis TCA cycle OxPhos Acetyl-CoA PDK PDC Pyruvate Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glycerinaldehyde- 3-phosphate Glucose Glucose- 6-phosphate Fructose- 6-phosphate FBP PEP Pyruvate pH NADP + NADPH Glycolysis H + H + H + H + H + H + H + PKM2 LDH-A Immune suppression c-myc Hif1α c-myc Hif1α c-myc Hif1α c-myc Hif1α Hypoxia

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